Against this backdrop, the researcher undertook this study to show that the concept of god is not strange to Africans and that in traditional Africa there is no atheist. The spirit beings are usually divided into two categories: (1) the spirits of the dead elders (the ancestors) and (2) the non-human spirit beings. His duty is to watch, protect and bless the remaining family members. We also detected inconsistencies in how different elements are treated in different conceptual models, particularly behavioral elements such as attitudes, motivations, intentions, and external influences. namely: 3D CAD modeling, Bridge Sustainability Rating System (BrSRS), Bridge Environmental Performance Strategy Mapping (BrEPSM), and conceptual cost estimating. However, there is insufficient agreement on the dimensions and criteria used to judge the quality of conceptual models in educational technology. Deceased ancestors remain close by, as part of the family, sharing meals and maintaining an interest in family affairs -- just as before death. In Africa, the world was believed to be inhabited by beings both visible and invisible. Tozer (1994:11) famously suggests that “What comes into our minds when we think about God is the most important thing about us”. Among the visible beings were humans, animals and plants. Nothing was wrong with our ancestral original forms of deities, but it was a reminder to Eurocentric that they were not the originators of the concept of god. This paper seeks to examine how Africans conceive of the Supreme Being, divinities and spirits. The Jews too do not worship En-Sof. Other articles where Ancestor worship is discussed: African religions: Ritual and religious specialists: Ancestors also serve as mediators by providing access to spiritual guidance and power. This is the spirit of anti-christ, which you have heard is coming and even is When more than one keywords are used for defining the single concept in the documents and in the queries, inaccurate and incomplete results were produced by keyword based retrieval systems. In order to effectively use technology in education, appropriate conceptual understandings are needed to guide the integration process. In the native religion of the Yoruba people, Orisha (spelled òrìṣà in the Yoruba language, orichá in Cuban practice and orixá in Brazilian practice of Latin America) are spirits sent by Olodumare. He is believed to be the creator of the world the sovereign ruler of the whole universe and all that is in it – man, animal, and plants. It is better to focus one’s attention on such entities as the ancestors who, while also retaining characteristics of We did have a relationship with God through African Prophets before the coming of missionaries. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. (ii) They intercede for the community's needs to God. Question: "What does the Bible say about ancestor worship?" They originate from Mozambique, Malawi and Swaziland. I give praise to the universe I give praise to mother earth I give praise to all of nature and its beings I give praise to all my guiding spirits I give praise to my ancestors I give praise to all that came before me in this struggle I give praise to my elders I give praise to all those who have cared for me, protected me, guided me and loved me I give praise to…. God was the creator of the universe. Enekpe. OLUPONA: The role of ancestors in the African cosmology has always been significant. Africans believe in the existence of a mystical, invisible, hidden, spiritual power in the universe. The model aims to provide bridge type recommendations, allow customization of a sustainable bridge, illustrate forecasted footprint levels, present the conceptual design in AutoCAD’s 3-dimensional (3D) mode, facilitate a recalculation process when the bridge’s dimensions are altered, and generate a conceptual cost estimate. The S… ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Satan has always sought to supplant God, and he uses lies about worshiping other gods and even ancestors to try to lead people away from the truth of God’s existence. Attachment to these spirits is still extremely strong and much of the Shona behavior and ethical conduct can be explained by this belief. Africans were seen as worshipping strange god(s). Basics. Integrating 3D Modeling, Sustainability and Cost Estimating at the Conceptual Design Stage of Bridge... An Art of Review on Conceptual based Information Retrieval, Understanding the Adoption of Innovations in Agriculture: A Review of Selected Conceptual Models, In book: Phenomenological Approaches to Religion and Spirituality (pp.18-43). wide range of conceptual models are developed and used in research and/or practice focusing on educational technology integration. I offer guidance to my ancestors and spirits by way of the Guardian Angels and Protective Spirits who by the power and order of God will assist them in their greater act of evolution. Selected Aspects In African Religious Heritage: African Concept of God, Spirits And Ancestors; African Moral and Cultural Values; CRE Form 1 Notes Study Questions with answers for all topics; WhatsApp us +254 700 755976 to request for hard copy. Educational Technology Research and Development. Therefore, the main goals of this article are to: (1) develop criteria to assess the quality and scope of conceptual models and (2) identify and compare exemplary models for technology integration in educational settings along with these quality criteria. Africans believed in existence of a supreme being who lived in mountains, clouds and the sky. They profess habits of truth, justice, honesty, good character, and diligence. When Africans need to connect spiritually it is imperative to first connect with African culture research African history most importantly honor your ancestors. Only people who have had children will become spirits of the dead In many African myths the High God is separated from humanity and used to live with human in an earthly paradise Various research work has been carried out on concept based information retrieval to tackle the difficulties that are caused by the conventional keyword search and the semantic search systems. Very simple and basic daily efforts can help alleviate our ancestral distress and give momentum to ancestral spirits in their afterlife. There may be spirits and ancestors floating around, but there’s only one God. Ancestor worship is wrong because it goes against God’s specific warnings about such worship, and it seeks to replace Jesus Christ as the Divine Mediator between God and mankind. Our review covered a range of modeling approaches for diffusion and individual adoption, illustrating different perspectives used in the literature. Concepts of God, Divinities, Ancestors, and Spirits in African Traditional Religious Thought: Conceptual Analysis: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4595-9.ch002: The concept of god, divinities, ancestors, and spirits in African traditional religious ontology has been misunderstood by many scholars to the point of Concepts of God, Divinities, Ancestors, and Spirits in African Traditional Religious Thought: Conceptual Analysis January 2021 DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4595-9.ch002 Ancestors: The ancestors, according to Quarcome (1987) are the heroes and heroines of the various tribes who are believed to have acquired extra-human powers in the afterlife which enables to intervene in the lives of the living members of the society. Traditional Africans have a three tier view of the world, similar to that of the ancient Hebrews, consisting of the sky, the earth, which includes land and water, and the area under the earth, which is the abode of the ancestors (Kalu 2000:56). In addition, the conceptual information that are extracted from the different sources for utilizing the semantic representation by the existing systems have been discussed. Death is not a sufficient condition for becoming an ancestor. In addition to the belief in deity, the Supreme Being of Africa largely overlaps conceptually with the identity and work of the biblical God. The conceptual analysis is borne out of the need for meaningful understanding of the concepts as follows: Concept of God, Divinities, Ancestors and Spirits in African Traditional Religious Ontology. The ancestors are close to the humans and serve as their custodians. Who Are the Orishas? He adds that the word ancestor denotes a human being, and Africans worship God alone. He is invisible and infinite and cannot be comprehended by the finite man. Although African religions have not embarked on a systematic theology, the myths, rituals, and stories of the gods and ancestors point to a profound statement on moral justice. Death is not a sufficient condition for becoming an ancestor. Suggestions for further research in the field include: questioning whether the adoption of all technologies and practices can be represented by the same adoption or learning process, exploring the dynamics in the relationship between adopters and technology before and after adoption, and questioning the basic assumptions behind the process of individual decision-making models and the role of collective decision-making. The 3D CAD module was developed using the Graphics.DrawLine method. Most ancestral spirits are generally good and kind. Ancestor worship is the almost universal religion of Africa. 8.2. 5 Traditional African ways of: a) worshipping God. Some people liken the Orishas to gods … The model incorporates a rule-based expert system and four modules, Basically keywords are used to index and retrieve the documents for the user query in a conventional information retrieval systems. 2 African understanding of the hierarchy of beings. Learn about the Seven African Powers and how you can begin working with them in African spirituality and folk magic. Ancestors can offer advice and bestow good fortune and honor to their living dependents, but they can also make demands, such as insisting that their shrines be properly maintained and propitiated. Also his prosperity, comfort and good living are derived from the spirits of his ancestors. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. Early missionaries made a complete pig’s ear of their research in this respect and seem to have delighted in cataloging as many ‘heathen’ Gods as … In his book, ‘The living dead and the living God,’ Klaus Nurnberger (2007: 37) says that “Effective authority must be existentially present. With at least 70 years of research in the adoption of agricultural innovations, there has been a proliferation of adoption models, both conceptual and numerical. The Ndebele believe that uMlimo is the oldest ancestor and the consult him through amadhlozi. The spirit world is believed to be a radically different world, it is also a carbon copy of the countries where [the ancestors] lived in this life ( Concepts of God in Africa book. God (Supreme Being): There is a widespread belief in God who is believed to be supreme and above all; God is essentially a spirit and is recognized as such in all the African tribes. Only those who lived a full measure of life, cultivated moral values, and achieved social distinction attain this status. This study adopts the descriptive and analytical research methods to investigate African traditional religious lifestyle, beliefs, and practices. The Gods, Goddesses, Spirits and legendary characters of African mythology. ... African God/dess of Creation. Ancestor worship is found in many cultures all across the world. O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. Integrated 3D Modeling adaptation on infrastructure has been slow due to technical challenges, such as the lack of interoperability between software. 1 African concept of God, spirits and ancestors. The Ancestors come before the orishas and must be given their due attention and offerings before proceeding with any initiation, ritual or festival. 8.2. The Jews like the Africans, worship the intermediary Gods. The Orishas are a group of spirits originating from Yorubaland, which is a region in Africa spanning Nigeria, Benin and Togo. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. This is why the Africans do not use any image to represent Him. Answer: Ancestor worship involves religious beliefs and practices consisting of prayers and offerings to the spirits of dead relatives. Ancestor Spirits and their role in African Traditional Religion. Africans rather see the divinities as special beings, offspring, and/or apparitional beings who receive their authority from the supreme being to serve in the unitary theocratic system of the supreme being's government. We conducted a review of conceptual models to clarify the concepts and approaches used in the practice of modeling adoption in agriculture. Biblically an ancestor is a family member that has passed on. Authoring or editing more than half a dozen books on religion and African culture (including the recent “African Religions: A Very Short Introduction,” Oxford University Press), Olupona has researched topics ranging from the indigenous religions of Africa to the religious practices of Africans who have settled in America. Mbiti (1969:178) disputes the use of the term worship, yet he accepts that in the worship of God, in some cases, sacrifices and offerings are directed to one or more of the following: God, spirits and the living dead (ancestors). This paper aims at elucidating various representation of text that is responsible for retrieving relevant search results, approaches along with the evaluation that are carried out in conceptual information retrieval, the challenges faced by the existing research to expatiate requirements of future research. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. Though Islam has conquered north Africa and Christianity (as the world sees it) has conquered the rest, through it all is the power of ancestor worship. The resulting five criteria from this investigation provide the means to effectively evaluate the quality and scope of conceptual models focused on technology integration while providing additional insight into applying these models in research and practice. The ancestral spirits have a link with the gods & dieties. There are many arguments when it comes to believing in ancestors, and believing in God. defined, explained, and measured, causing agricultural extension and policy to rely on a body of literature that is often not able to offer clear recommendations on the variables or mechanisms that can be used to design interventions. An examination of the characteristics of Nana Nyame reveals a traditional African worldview that has respect for the plurality, mystery, and the relational nature of God, ultimate reality, and existence itself. This is how you can recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that does not acknowledg e Jesus is not from God. The concept of god, divinities, ancestors, and spirits in African traditional religious ontology has been misunderstood by many scholars to the point of seeing Africans as people who did not know the supreme being nor worship him. Qualities Of God SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Selected Aspects In African Religious Heritage: African Concept Of God Selected Old Testament Prophets And Their Teachings Shepherds Sinai Covenant: Moses Spirits And Ancestors Spread Of Christianity St. Luke Gospel Technology And Environment The Bible The Galilean Ministry THE GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT african concepts of: divinities spirits ancestors magic & medcine Divinities Nature: = Second most important Element in African Belief Structure =Essentially regarded as intermediaries Between SB and Humans =Venerated (Not Worshiped) as central figures in African Religious Belief Through devotions in rituals during ceremonies and Festivals For the full alphabetical list of alternative names, check out Godchecker's list of African deity names. (c) State six aspects of traditional … The ancestor is a human being that fulfilled his/her destiny, or God-given purpose, in life and achieves metaphysical completion in death. Modern Africans, like their ancestors, do not worship Tu-SoS, which they variously call Olodumare, Osanobua, Chukwu. Let the light I offer be a “beacon of hope” and serve as an escape and protective shield from the shadows of despair. In his argument on ancestor-worship he stated that 'there are ancestors who have become anthropomorphic gods, who coexist with the deification of natural phenomena and who Soko. for the guidance of all creation and of humanity in particular, on how to live and be successful on Àiyé (Earth). African ancestors created all the initial intermediary Gods and Deities known to man. . (a) What was the role of ancestors in Traditional African Communities? Different spirits are believed to inhabit all three regions. African Supreme God. Igala mythology. Ancestor worship and belief is an extension of a belief in and respect for elders. Ekpatt, A. O. In the hierarchically ordered world of African Traditional Religion, God is the ancestor, par excellence. The ancestors are without question the most prominent aspect of African religion, in fact, they are the heart of the African spirit world. - I renounce all false beliefs and philosophies inherited by my ancestors in the name of Jesus. (2021). It is common knowledge that the African preachers of the leading denominations consult witch doctors. 1. The believed to be Go’s lieutenants who are given ministerial functions by God. The belief in ancestors stands central in the traditional African thought and is an essential pillar of religion practiced in Africa (Stinton 2004:133–134). We have tried to collect as many Holy Aliases as possible. relationship between the related keywords in terms of semantics to produce the accurate results which have paved the way for semantic search. Findings from this review can be considered by adoption researchers and modelers in their work to assist policy and extension efforts to improve the uptake of future beneficial agricultural innovations. 2 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, becaus e many false prophets have gone out into the world. In African indigenous religions, the principal deities, spirits, gods, ancestors, and personal and impersonal forces are regarded as active agents in the created world, with theistic and nontheistic notions of supernatural forces embedded in the various cosmologies. Additionally, manual interventions are required for determining the, Models can provide a structured way to think about adoption and provide a method to investigate the impacts of different factors in the adoption process. He is believed to be both distant from men and near to him. The gods and ancestors are guardians of morality. 3 The role of God, spirits and ancestors. The concept of God, divinities and spirits in African traditional religious ontology has been so misunderstood by many scholars to the point of seeing Africans as people who did not know the Supreme Being nor worship Him. This chapter concludes by suggesting that there is the need for proper religious education, a theology of enculturation, and understanding of African worldviews in order to sustain Africans' beliefs and practices. A.W. We have tried to collect as many Holy Aliases as possible. Mbiti (1969:178) disputes the use of the term worship, yet he accepts that in the worship of God, in some cases, sacrifices and offerings are directed to one or more of the following: God, spirits and the living dead (ancestors). We found that key elements that should be used in adoption models for agriculture include: a way to assess the performance of the proposed new technology (e.g., relative advantage, both economic and non-economic) in relation to the existing technology or practice in place, the process of learning about this advantage, the interaction between individual decision-making and external influences, and characteristics of potential adopters affecting their attitudes towards the technology. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Their major function is mediation between God and man. Many cultures, including many in South Africa, define an ancestor as a family member that is living in the world of the dead. All spirit beings are endowed with certain powers and they apply these powers upon the humans for their good or for their harm. Followers of traditional African religion believe that ancestors maintain a spiritual connection with their living relatives. Their healers mainly use ukufemba as their medium of healing.

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