The exact meaning of the surname is unknown. For example, in a Rajput kingdom the families of the Rajput king and his nobles resided in the capital town, while the Rajput landlords and cultivators resided in villages. Do you know of any more Gujarati surnames? As regards the specific case of the Rajput-Koli relationship, my impression is that, after the suppression of female infanticide in the first half of the 19th century, the later prohibition of polygyny, and the recent removal of princely states and feudal land tenures among the Rajputs on the one hand, and the increasing sanskritization as well as Rajputization among the Kolis on the other, marriage ties between these divisions have become more extensive than before. Gujarati caste name could indicate the type of work people belonging to the Gujarati caste do or did in earlier times. They had an internal hierarchy similar to that of the Leva Kanbis, with tax-farmers and big landlords at the top and small landowners at the bot­tom. Apparently this upper boundary of the division was sharp and clear, especially when we remember that many of these royal families practised polygyny and female infanticide until middle of the 19th century (see Plunkett 1973; Viswa Nath 1969, 1976). The Khadayatas were divided into about 30 ekdas. Among the first-order divisions with subdivisions going down to the fourth order, there are associations for divisions of all the orders. Caste divisions of the first-order can be classified broadly into three categories. This has helped them to successfully emigrate and thrive around the world. The surname is probably derived from the word ‘Hathi,’ which means elephant. A large proportion, if not the whole, of the population of many of such di­visions lived in towns. A common Gujarati and Sindhi surname, Virani means ‘descendant of Vir.’ The word ‘Vir’ derives from the Sanskrit word ‘Vira,’ meaning a hero. Kothari derives its name from the words ‘Kotha’ or ‘Kothar,’ which means treasury or godown. Shah derives its name from ‘sahukaar, ’a Gujarati word that means merchant, banker, or money-lender. But there was also another process. Early industrial labour was also drawn mainly from the urban artisan and servant castes. While fission did occur, fusion could also oc­cur. Thus, Hathiwala could mean someone who looks after or trains elephants. He does not give importance to this possibility prob­ably because, as he goes on to state, “what is sought here is a universal formula, a rule without exceptions” (ibid.). When divisions are found within a jati, the word sub-jati or sub-caste is used. That Rajput’s were one of the divisions, if not the only division of the first-order, not having further divisions, has already been mentioned. It is assumed the surname would have been a title for a nobleman or noblewoman. The main reason was that Anavils did not practise priesthood as a traditional occupation, nor were they involved in traditional Sanskrit learning. Do tell us about them in the comments section below. The two together formed a single complex of continental dimension. Till the establishment of democratic polity in 1947, hardly any caste association in Gujarat had manifest political functions. The family to which I belong, broadly Gandhian in belief, had rarely talked about our caste or sub-caste. Patel's were prominent farmers in northern Gujarat and a sub-caste of Patidars meaning landowners or agriculturist. The surname Lakhani means ‘descendant of Lakh.’ The word ‘Lakh’ comes from ‘Laksmana,’ a Sanskrit word which means, ‘one who has auspicious marks.’  Lakhani is also a common surname among Sindhis. The essential idea in the category was power, and anybody who wielded power—either as king or as dominant group in a rural (even tribal) area—could claim to be Rajput. In all there were about eighty such divisions. Briefly, while the Varna model was significant in the total dynam­ics of the caste system to fit the numerous first-order divisions into the four-fold Varna model in any part of India is impossible, and, therefore, to consider varnas as caste divisions as such is meaningless. Our analysis of the internal organization of caste divisions has shown considerable variation in the relative role of the principles of division and hierarchy. The prohibition of inter-division marriage was much more important than the rules of purity and pollution in the main­tenance of boundaries between the lower-order divisions. It probably is a combination of the words screw and ‘wala’ meaning seller or maker. In particular, the implications of the co-existence of lower-order divisions within a higher- order division in the same town or city should be worked out. If the Patels are divided according to 'marriage circle', the Baniyas and Brahmins of Gujarat are divided into sub-castes and sub-sub castes. For example, just as there were Modh Vanias, there were Modh Brahmans, and similarly Khadayata Vanias and Khadayata Brahmans, Shrimali Vanias and Shrimali Brahmans, Nagar Vanias and Nagar Brahmans, and so on. They were involved in agriculture in one way or another. Similarly, the Vanias were divided into such divisions as Disawal, Kapol, Khadayata, Lad, Modh, Nagar, Nima, Porwad, Shirmali, Vayada, and Zarola. The Kolis in such an area may not even be concerned about a second-order divisional name and may be known simply as Kolis. This tendency reaches its culmination in the world of Dumont. The Kolis seem to have had only two divisions in every part of Gujarat: for example, Talapada (indigenous) and Pardeshi (foreign) in central Gujarat and Palia and Baria in eastern Gujarat (significantly, one considered indigenous and the other outsider). All castes sub castes are primarily divided into 4 categories: Thus, the result was the spread of the population of a caste division towards its fringes. Patidar (Gujarati પટેલ, paṭel, pronounced ) is an Indian title, in tune with the Hindu caste system, that represents some of the castes that are predominant in the Indian state of Gujarat that are either agriculturalists or land owners. Daruwala is a composite of the Gujarati words ‘daru,’ meaning  alcohol, and ‘wala,’ which means seller or maker. All the small towns sections in each of the ekdas resented that, while the large town sec­tion accepted brides from small towns, they did not reciprocate. 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